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In the United States, the first day nursery was opened in 1854. Nurseries were established in various areas during the 61_______ half of the 19th century; most of 62_______ were charitable. Both in Europe and in the U.S., the day-nursery movemnet received great 63_______ during the First World War, when 64_______ of manpower caused the industrial employment of unprecedented(前所未有）numbers of women. In some European countries nurseries were established 65_______ in munitions(军火）plants, under direct government sponsorship. 66_______ the number of nurseries in the U.S. also rose 67_______, this was accomplished without government aid of any kind. During the years following the First World War, 68_______, federal, State, and local governments gradually began to exercise a measure of control 69_______ the day nurseries, chiefly by 70______ them and by...
The 71_______ of the Second World War was quickly followed by an increase in the number of day nurseries in almost all countries, as women were 72_______ called up on to replace men in the factories. On this 73_______ the U.S. government immediately came to the support of the nursery schools. 74_______ school grogram for the children of working monthers. Many States and local communities 75_______ this Federal aid. By the end of war, in August, 1945, more than 100,000 children were being cared 76_______ in daycare centers receiving Federal 77_______. Soon afterward, the Federal government 78_______ cut down its expenditures for this purpose and later 79_______ them, causing a sharp drop in the number of nursery schools in operation. However, the expectation that most employed mothers would leave their 80_______ at the end of the war was only partly fulfilled.
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